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About Fungal Infections


Fungal infections are primarily caused by fungi, including yeasts and molds, that can be found in the environment. Common causes and risk factors include:
Dermatophytes: These fungi are responsible for most fungal skin infections, such as athlete's foot, ringworm, and nail infections.
Candida: Candida species, including Candida albicans, can lead to oral thrush, vaginal yeast infections, and systemic candidiasis.
Environmental Exposure: Fungi thrive in warm, moist environments, making swimming pools, saunas, and communal showers common sources of infection.
Weakened Immune System: Individuals with weakened immune systems due to conditions like HIV, cancer, or the use of immunosuppressive medications are more susceptible to fungal infections.
Poor Hygiene: Inadequate personal hygiene can increase the risk of fungal infections, especially in warm, humid climates.


Diagnosing fungal infections typically involves the following steps:
Clinical Assessment: Healthcare providers evaluate the appearance and location of skin, nails, or mucous membrane lesions.
Microscopic Examination: A sample of the affected tissue, nail, or secretion is examined under a microscope to identify fungal elements.
Culture Tests: Fungi may be cultured from samples to determine the specific species and assess their susceptibility to antifungal medications.
Biopsy: In severe or systemic fungal infections, a tissue biopsy may be required to confirm the diagnosis.


The treatment of fungal infections depends on the type, location, and severity of the infection. Common treatment options include:
Topical Antifungals: Creams, ointments, and powders containing antifungal agents are used for superficial skin and nail infections.
Oral Antifungals: Systemic fungal infections or those affecting nails may require oral medications, including fluconazole, itraconazole, or terbinafine.
Nail Treatments: For fungal nail infections, topical solutions or oral antifungals are used to eradicate the fungus.
Antifungal Shampoos: For conditions like scalp ringworm, medicated shampoos can be effective.
Prevention of Recurrence: Long-term prevention may involve lifestyle changes to reduce the risk of recurrence.


Preventive measures to reduce the risk of fungal infections include:
Personal Hygiene: Maintain good personal hygiene, especially in warm, humid environments.
Avoid Sharing Personal Items: Do not share towels, clothing, or personal items that may harbor fungal spores.
Footwear: Use flip-flops or shower shoes in communal areas like swimming pools and gyms.
Antifungal Powders: In areas prone to moisture and sweating, apply antifungal powders to keep the skin dry.
Regular Skin Inspections: Check the skin and nails regularly for any signs of infection.

Further Info:


Are over-the-counter (OTC) antifungal creams and ointments effective in treating fungal skin infections, or should I seek prescription medication?

OTC antifungal creams can be effective in treating many superficial fungal skin infections, such as athlete's foot and ringworm. However, for more severe or persistent infections, or those involving the nails, it's advisable to consult with a healthcare provider who may recommend prescription-strength antifungal medications for optimal treatment.

Can I prevent fungal nail infections, and if I already have one, how can I effectively manage it?

Preventing fungal nail infections involves keeping nails clean and dry, wearing proper-fitting shoes, and avoiding shared footwear in public areas. If you already have a fungal nail infection, consult a healthcare provider for guidance on antifungal treatments, which may include topical solutions or oral medications, and follow their recommendations for optimal management.

Can fungal infections be transmitted from person to person, and what precautions should I take to avoid spreading or contracting them?

Yes, fungal infections can be transmitted from person to person. To prevent the spread of fungal infections, avoid sharing personal items like towels and clothing, practice good personal hygiene, and maintain dry skin and nails. If you suspect a fungal infection, avoid close contact with others and consult a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Are there any natural remedies or lifestyle changes that can help prevent fungal infections, particularly in warm and humid climates?

In warm and humid climates, preventing fungal infections involves keeping the skin clean and dry, wearing breathable clothing, and using antifungal powders. Some individuals use natural remedies like tea tree oil or apple cider vinegar, which may provide relief for mild infections. However, for persistent or severe fungal infections, consult with a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment.

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